Climates

Climate can be measured by studying the average state of the weather over the previous 30 years. The climate of a location therefore indicates the kind of weather you would expect to find there.

There are so many different climates all over the world, it is almost impossible to determine where one climate ends and where another one begins. The German-Austrian scientist Wladimir Köppen divided the climates up in 1908 in order to make the decision whether an area was in one climate or another, easier. This is the so-called Köppen-Geigerpohl classification. Almost one hundred years later, climates are still classified via this method.

According to Köppen, there are five main categories:

A: tropical rain climate
B: dry climate
C: sea climate
D: land climate
E: cold climate


These main climate categories are subdivided into more specific climates, which he named according to their characteristics. These characteristics are indicated by a letter after the key of the main category

After A,C and D
f= a dry period
s= dry summers
w= dry winters

After B:
W= desert
S = steppe

After E:
F: perpetual snow
H: the same as F, but in high mountains
T: tundra

These mount up to the following climates:

Af: Tropical rain climate, rain throughout the whole year rain
As/Aw: Tropical rain climate, with dry summer or winter
BW: Desert climate, very dry
BS: Steppe climate, occasional rain
Cs: Mediterranean sea climate, dry summer
Cw: China climate, dry winter
Cf: Moderate sea climate, rain throughout the whole year
Df: Land climate, rain throughout the whole year
Dw: Land climate, winters dry
EF/EH: Snow climate, perpetual snow
ET: Tundra climate, slightly less cold